Phys. Rev. Lett 81 3703-3706 (1998).
Non-Appearance of Vortices in Fast Mechanical Expansions
of Liquid 4He Through the Lambda Transition
M.E. Dodd, P.C. Hendry, N.S. Lawson, P.V.E. McClintock and
Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (UK).
Department of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter,
EX4 4QL (UK).
A new experiment has been performed to study the formation of
topological defects (quantized vortices) during rapid quenches of
liquid 4He through the superfluid transition, with particular care
taken to minimise vortex creation via conventional hydrodynamic flow
processes. It is found that the generated vortices, if any, are being
produced at densities at least two orders of magnitude less than might
be expected on the basis of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism.
Keywords: liquid helium, vortices, cosmic strings.
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