||Condensed Matter II
||Dr S. Russo
||15 NICATS / 7.5 ECTS
||76 students (approx)
The module will apply much of the core physics covered in PHY2021,
PHY2024, and PHY3051
to novel systems and engage with fundamental electric, magnetic and optical phenomena in metals and dielectrics. The module illustrates
and draws on research undertaken in the Department: studies of the metal-to-insulator transition, oscillatory effects in strong magnetic fields,
optical and magnetic phenomena.
The module aims to develop understanding of effects that played a key role in the development of contemporary solid state physics and to provide a general description of its current trends. The different topics covered will be linked by the idea that electrons in solids can be treated as quasi-particles interacting with other quasi-particles: electrons, phonons, photons. In addition to electrons, other excitations in solids are considered, e.g. Cooper pairs, plasmons and polaritons.
Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs)
A student who has passed this module should be able to:
Module Specific Skills and Knowledge:
- develop the concept of energy bands in the tight-binding approximation and compare the outcome of this methodology with the nearly-free electron model described in PHY2024;
- explain how the conducting properties of metals are affected by disorder and electron-electron interactions, and describe the types of the metal-to-insulator transition;
- explain the significance of complex Fermi surfaces for transport properties of metals and how the shape of the Fermi surface can be mapped using oscillatory effects;
- develop classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of the electron motion in electric and magnetic fields, Hall and magnetoresistive effects;
- explain characteristic features of superconductors and the origin of superconductivity;
- explain how interaction effects modify the properties of quaisi-paricles in solids and descripe the origin of different excitations: plasmon, polariton, polaron, exciton and magnon;
- explain the origin of the fundamental magnetic phenomena and the basic models in their description;
Discipline Specific Skills and Knowledge:
- apply core physics to the solution of problems involving unfamiliar systems;
Personal and Key Transferable / Employment Skills and Knowledge:
- use spatial reasoning to derive qualitative solutions to problems;
- manage the own work.
Electrons in Solids
- Calculations of Band Stucture
- Comparison of tight-binding with the nearly-free electron model
- Brief introduction to other methods, e.g. LCAO, Pseudo-potentials, LMTO, LAPW
- Fermi Surface and Electron Dynamics in Metals.
- Construction of the Fermi surface and Fermi surfaces of some metals.
- Semiclassical model of electron dynamics. Electron motion in crossed magnetic and electric fields.
- Hall effect and magnetoresistance.
- Landau quantisation of the electron spectrum.
- Shubnikov-de Haas and de Haas-van Alphen effects, experimental conditions for their observation.
- Mapping of the Fermi surface in three-dimensional metals.
- Metal-to-insulator transition in three- and two-dimensional metals. Current situation in the field.
- Electron-electron interaction in metals: Fermi liquid
- Difference between 'ideal' metal and superconductor. Specific features of magnetic, thermal and optical properties of superconductors.
- Isotope effect. The concept of the Cooper pair and the outline of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory.
- Josephson effects. High-temperature superconductivity.
Electrons, Phonons and Photons
- Dispersion relation for electromagnetic waves in solids and the dielectric function of the electron gas.
- Plasma optics and plasmons.
- Dielectic function and electrostatic screening. Screened Coulomb potential.
- Phonon-photon interaction: polaritons.
- Electron-phonon interaction: polarons.
- Interband transitions
- Electron-hole interaction: excitons.
- Raman Spectra
Quasiparticles in Low-dimensional Solids
- Excitons, plasmons, polarons, and polaritons
Magnetic Properties of Solids
- Ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism.
- Spin waves and magnons.
- Giant magneto-resistance.
Learning and Teaching
Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
|2×1-hour problems/revision classes
|5×6-hour self-study packages
|4×4-hour problem sets
|Reading, private study and revision
||Discussion in class
||4 × Problems sets
||4 hours per set
||Solutions discussed in problems classes.
||2 hours 30 minutes
||Mark via MyExeter, collective feedback via ELE and solutions.
The following list is offered as an indication of the type & level of information that
students are expected to consult. Further guidance will be provided by the Module Instructor(s).
Prior Knowledge Requirements
||Condensed Matter I (PHY2024), Electromagnetism II (PHY3051) and Statistical Physics (PHYM001)
Re-assessment is not available except when required by referral or deferral.
|Original form of assessment
||Form of re-assessment
||Time scale for re-assessment
||Written examination (100%)
||August/September assessment period
Notes: See Physics Assessment Conventions.
KIS Data Summary
|Learning activities and teaching methods|
|SLT - scheduled learning & teaching activities
|GIS - guided independent study
|PLS - placement/study abroad
|IoP Accreditation Checklist
||MPhys and PGRS only
||Physics; Placeholder; Main; Topic placeholder; Specific; Option level; Level; Theory; Specific skill; Option; .